Classification And Division Essay Ideas For 8th
For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation).
For a description of essays as used by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia:Essays.
"Essai" redirects here. For other uses, see Essai (disambiguation).
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner), humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc.
Essays are commonly used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.
The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that "the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything", and adds that "by tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece". Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference". These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are:
- The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description".
- The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data".
- The abstract-universal: In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.
Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays "...make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist."
The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, "to try" or "to attempt". In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as "attempts" to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing. Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch, a translation of whose Œuvres Morales (Moral works) into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot, Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais, was published in two volumes in 1580. For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon's essays, published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
English essayists included Robert Burton (1577–1641) and Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). In France, Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the JesuitBaltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position; they also featured heavily in the rise of periodical literature, as seen in the works of Joseph Addison, Richard Steele and Samuel Johnson. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt, Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g., T.S. Eliot). Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia Woolf, Edmund Wilson, and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays.
Main article: Zuihitsu
As with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book (c. 1000), by court lady Sei Shōnagon, and Tsurezuregusa (1330), by particularly renowned Japanese Buddhist monk Yoshida Kenkō. Kenkō described his short writings similarly to Montaigne, referring to them as "nonsensical thoughts" written in "idle hours". Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time.
Forms and styles
This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists.
Cause and effect
The defining features of a "cause and effect" essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject, determine the purpose, consider the audience, think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language, and decide on a conclusion.
Classification and division
Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts.
Compare and contrast
Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically.
Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader's emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic".Lyric essays are an important form of descriptive essays.
In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy, the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument), but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper.
An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative, and believable examples including anecdotes. Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay.
An essayist writes a familiar essay if speaking to a single reader, writing about both themselves, and about particular subjects. Anne Fadiman notes that "the genre's heyday was the early nineteenth century," and that its greatest exponent was Charles Lamb. She also suggests that while critical essays have more brain than the heart, and personal essays have more heart than brain, familiar essays have equal measures of both.
A history essay sometimes referred to as a thesis essay describes an argument or claim about one or more historical events and supports that claim with evidence, arguments, and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such.
A narrative uses tools such as flashbacks, flash-forwards, and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot. When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically.
An argumentative essay is a critical piece of writing, aimed at presenting objective analysis of the subject matter, narrowed down to a single topic. The main idea of all the criticism is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, a critical essay requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure. Its structure normally builds around introduction with a topic's relevance and a thesis statement, body paragraphs with arguments linking back to the main thesis, and conclusion. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized. Each argument of argumentative essay should be supported with sufficient evidence, relevant to the point.
An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme. It can take a narrative course and a descriptive course. It can even become an argumentative essay if the author feels the need. After the introduction, the author has to do his/her best to expose the economic matter at hand, to analyze it, evaluate it, and draw a conclusion. If the essay takes more of a narrative form then the author has to expose each aspect of the economic puzzle in a way that makes it clear and understandable for the reader
A reflective essay is an analytical piece of writing in which the writer describes a real or imaginary scene, event, interaction, passing thought, memory, or form — adding a personal reflection on the meaning of the topic in the author's life. Thus, the focus is not merely descriptive. The writer doesn’t just describe the situation, but revisits the scene with more detail and emotion to examine what went well, or reveal a need for additional learning — and may relate what transpired to the rest of the author's life.
Other logical structures
The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument.
Main article: Free response
In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom, essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants (seeadmissions essay). In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material. Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences, mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours.
In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papers, are usually more formal than literary ones. They may still allow the presentation of the writer's own views, but this is done in a logical and factual manner, with the use of the first person often discouraged. Longer academic essays (often with a word limit of between 2,000 and 5,000 words) are often more discursive. They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review.
Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other supporting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
One of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill (or "paper mill") as their own work. An "essay mill" is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students. Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic fraud, universities and colleges may investigate papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers.
Magazine or newspaper
Main article: Long-form journalism
Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with an intellectual bent, such as The Atlantic and Harpers. Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the essay types described in the section on forms and styles (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section.
Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States. Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions.
A KSA, or "Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities," is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings in the United States. KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. KSAs are brief and focused essays about one's career and educational background that presumably qualify one to perform the duties of the position being applied for.
An Executive Core Qualification, or ECQ, is a narrative statement that is required when applying to Senior Executive Service positions within the US Federal government. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate.
A film essay (or "cinematic essay") consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay. From another perspective, an essay film could be defined as a documentary film visual basis combined with a form of commentary that contains elements of self-portrait (rather than autobiography), where the signature (rather than the life story) of the filmmaker is apparent. The cinematic essay often blends documentary, fiction, and experimental film making using tones and editing styles.
The genre is not well-defined but might include propaganda works of early Soviet parliamentarians like Dziga Vertov, present-day filmmakers including Chris Marker,Michael Moore (Roger & Me (1989), Bowling for Columbine (2002) and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)), Errol Morris (The Thin Blue Line (1988)), Morgan Spurlock (Supersize Me: A Film of Epic Portions) and Agnès Varda. Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as "film-essays". Two filmmakers whose work was the antecedent to the cinematic essay include Georges Méliès and Bertolt Brecht. Méliès made a short film (The Coronation of Edward VII (1902)) about the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII, which mixes actual footage with shots of a recreation of the event. Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays.Orson Welles made an essay film in his own pioneering style, released in 1974, called F for Fake, which dealt specifically with art forger Elmyr de Hory and with the themes of deception, "fakery," and authenticity in general. These are often published online on video hosting services.
David Winks Gray's article "The essay film in action" states that the "essay film became an identifiable form of filmmaking in the 1950s and '60s". He states that since that time, essay films have tended to be "on the margins" of the filmmaking the world. Essay films have a "peculiar searching, questioning tone ... between documentary and fiction" but without "fitting comfortably" into either genre. Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films "tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator (often the director) with a wide swath of other voices". The University of Wisconsin Cinematheque website echoes some of Gray's comments; it calls a film essay an "intimate and allusive" genre that "catches filmmakers in a pensive mood, ruminating on the margins between fiction and documentary" in a manner that is "refreshingly inventive, playful, and idiosyncratic".
In the realm of music, composer Samuel Barber wrote a set of "Essays for Orchestra," relying on the form and content of the music to guide the listener's ear, rather than any extra-musical plot or story.
A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs. Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes to full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an order that the viewer chooses. All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events.
In the visual arts, an essay is a preliminary drawing or sketch that forms a basis for a final painting or sculpture, made as a test of the work's composition (this meaning of the term, like several of those following, comes from the word essayJA's meaning of "attempt" or "trial").
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- ^ abessay (literature) – Britannica Online EncyclopediaArchived 2009-12-04 at the Wayback Machine.. Britannica.com. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- ^Chapter 7: Cause and Effect in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.
- ^Chapter 5: Classification and Division in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.
- ^Chapter 6: Comparison and Contrast in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.
- ^Chapter 2: Description in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005.
- ^Section 2.1 of the Simon Fraser University CNS Essay Handbook. Available online at: sfu.ca
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- ^Fadiman, Anne. At Large and At Small: Familiar Essays. p. x.
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Don’t you just love when the name of an essay is straightforward? A classification essay is an essay in which you classify something—anything—based on shared characteristics. You can classify people, things, or even ideas.
Your subject will represent a broad “whole.” The idea is to examine this whole for the parts that make it up, the parts that other people might not usually think about.
It’s a pretty simple idea on its face, but this is a chance to not only make a subject easier to understand, but also to dig into it and understand it on a deeper level.
For example, think about the common groups of students one encounters in high school.
Was your first instinct to think about the stereotypical categories (jocks, brainiacs, mean girls), either from experience or from watching cheesy American movies? Are those categories really accurate?
Perhaps you believe they are, but you may find that your classification essay takes you in a direction that you didn’t expect when you started. Trust the process.
So how do you choose good classification essay topics?
Important Things to Consider When Selecting Classification Essay Topics
They say write what you know. You may find this to be good advice as you approach your classification essay. You’ll have the opportunity to research your subject, but nothing beats living it.
On the other hand, exploring something completely outside your experience can be a great way to learn something new during this process. You’ll also have the added bonus of bringing a new perspective to the essay, which can help when exploring unique ways of classifying your subject.
Either way, it’s imperative that you put in the prewriting time to come up with some good classification essay topics. One of the most interesting parts of a classification essay is exploring the various ways that you can categorize the parts of your subject.
Just about everything can be divided into categories, but not everything can provide the material for an interesting essay.
E.B. White once wrote an essay called “Here Is New York” in which he claims there are “roughly three New Yorks.”
First, he explains, is “the New York of the man or woman who was born there, who takes the city for granted and accepts its size, its turbulence as natural and inevitable.”
Then, “there is the New York of the commuter—the city that is devoured by locusts each day and spat out each night.”
He rounds out his categorization of New York with the people who were “born somewhere else and came to New York in quest of something.”
Mr. White believed that “the greatest is the last—the city of final destination, the city that is a goal.”
This is a prime example of a classification essay.
So start by making a list of subjects that pique your interest in some way. Then, take a closer look at how each subject can be categorized. You’ll want to find one that can be broken down in a way that’s new and interesting.
For example, most people already know that food can be divided into various food groups based on the nutrition each food provides. Writing a classification essay on this subject isn’t exactly going to create an essay that’s enthralling to read.
Once you come up with a list of subjects you like, think about how you can approach it from an interesting angle.
Is there something new that you and your reader can learn about this subject by classifying it in a certain way? If so, you’ve got yourself a good topic.
Next, you’ll need to think about how many categories there are. If you cannot come up with two or three, then you may need a new subject.
Moreover, once you decide on your subject, take the time to ensure you’ve thought of every possible category. Quickly jotting down a few categories most likely won’t cut it as leaving out an important one will not bode well for your essay.
Just to wrap up:
- Make a list of subjects that you have experience with and/or interest you
- Eliminate subjects that don’t allow for a new or interesting angle
- Choose a subject that can be categorized in various ways
- Take your time to think about all the possible categories
So now that you know what makes a good subject, here are the classification essay topics you’ve been waiting for.
20 Classification Essay Topics to Write a Great Essay
Even when not in a presidential election year, this is a subject that offers lots of material. What motivates people to enter politics? What motivates their actions once they do? This subject can be approached from many different angles and gives you and your reader the chance to make sense of modern politics.
2. College majors or classes
If you’re a college student, chances are you have recent experience in choosing a college major. If you’re like I was my first couple years of college, you may still be trying to figure it out. A lot goes into that decision, so there’s much to explore, including the forces that push us in certain directions or the types of classes you might take.
3. Types of artists
Some do it for the money, some for the fame, and others for the love of it. This subject could be explored for whichever area interests you the most—for example, writers, directors, musicians, or painters. You will have the opportunity to provide a lot of examples to back up your arguments.
4. Types of Americans
I imagine a fun, self-deprecating essay on the different types of people in a country that causes so many strong opinions, in one direction and another. Moreover, imagine all of the thinly veiled examples you can give based on your classmates or coworkers!
5. Sports fans
When I go to baseball games, I see parents with their children, old men filling out score cards alone, and people seemingly seeing how high they can stack draft beer cups. No matter the sport, there is a lot of potential in this subject to explore why people love sports so much. And research could be done at the stadium with a stack of beer cups at your feet!
While some people cook for sustenance, others cannot seem to make a meal without reducing some type of wine into a sauce. What motivates our obsessions with food and its relation to our social lives? Sounds like a classification topic winner to me!
7. Vacation destinations
There are obvious differences in the types of vacation destinations people choose—and in how people view vacation in general. No matter what angle you choose, this subject could offer you the opportunity to research your essay and dream up your next getaway at the same time.
The walls of my grandmother’s home were stacked from floor to ceiling with romance novels. It’s safe to say that she was reading for a different reason than your philosophy professor is. This essay idea could be tweaked for various hobbies.
Some are “drinkable” while others have a “full body.” Each is enjoyed for different reasons. Furthermore, people drink for various reasons. You could take this in several directions. Research could be dangerous.
10. Types of music
Writing a paper on genres of music isn’t going to provide much new, interesting information. However, people listen to different types of music for various reasons or during certain activities. What are the reasons behind this? This is an interesting topic that everyone can relate to.
11. Significant others
Some people are looking for different things in a relationship. Does this change over time and with age? A detailed exploration could be interesting and helpful for both the writer and the readers. Be careful, though. This could be a dangerous topic!
If you are writing this essay for a class, which I imagine you are, then you have a lot of immediate experience with teachers. Some want to be your friend, while others tend to act like drill sergeants. Why is this? What is more effective?
13. First dates
Some are bad. And then some make you seriously consider joining a monastery. It could be fun to explore the reasons that first dates go well, badly, or terribly.
14. Restaurant tippers
This could be a good subject for a waiter or waitress who has dealt with the one percenters and the generous alike. What is the mentality behind the decision to leave a fair amount of money to the servers or sometimes nothing at all?
15. People on social media
The insecure, the trolls, the social animals, the lonely, the photography lovers … these are just a few of the characters you find these days on social media. Perhaps there are narrower categories that could encompass the various motivations people have for using social media.
16. Legalized marijuana supporters and critics
This is a hot button issue in American politics these days. What are the motivations behind pushing for legalized marijuana? How do those who oppose it feel? What about a classification paper on the different ways beyond prohibition that one can deal with substance abuse?
17. People who work out
People work out for different reasons. Some of these reasons are healthier than others. This could be a lighthearted essay on the various characters one encounters in the gym, or it could be a serious look at how modern-day body issues manifest themselves. (On a related vein, you could also classify athletes.)
You could take this topic in a number of directions, focusing on personalities in society, in careers, or in your family. The good thing about this one is that it’s broad enough for you to approach it from whichever angle most interests you.
Have you ever seen The ‘Burbs with Tom Hanks? If so, you know what a neighbor can do to your life. Ask people about the worst neighbor they’ve ever had, and you will get some interesting stories.
20. Anything you’re passionate about
A classification essay can be a great source of self-reflection. How would someone categorize you if given the chance? Explore a topic that is important to you and you’ll be amazed at how fun and easy this paper is to write.
That’s a Wrap
Still not feeling a topic? For more ideas on potential classification essay topics, I encourage you to check out some of these classification essay examples.
Then, once you settle on a topic and churn out that first draft, send it over to the talented editors at Kibin. They will ensure your classification essay is up to snuff.
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