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Art Exhibition Catalogue Essay Checker

This guide is sourced from the Style Guide for Art History Essays and Theses by Dr David R. Marshall of the School of Culture and Communication.

The style given here is based on those commonly used for exhibition catalogues. The essential feature is that every footnote reference, including the first, takes the short form (Smith 2000), and that this short form is used as a label in the bibliography. The formatting is a variant of the Cambridge style.


Download the EndNote style file Exhibition Catalogue Style (for Art History).

You must enter footnote information in the Label field of the EndNote reference template:

  • Enter author and date in the following manner: Wittkower 1961
  • If there is more than one author, enter the names in one line separated by a comma.
  • Do not use the Label field of the EndNote reference template for other comments.


Footnote numbers should be placed without brackets slightly above the line20 (superscript) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer. If for some reason you are unable to produce superscript numbers, it is an acceptable alternative to place footnote numbers in brackets on the line (20) at the end of the phrase or sentence or paragraph to which they refer.

Footnotes are to be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, and placed at the foot of the page to which they refer:

20. Wittkower, 1961, pp. 160-63.

  • Footnote number: 20.
  • Label - comma between author and date: Wittkower, 1961,
    (For all references, including the first , use the label)
  • Page numbers - 'p.' for a single page reference, or 'pp.' for a multiple one: pp. 160-63.

Successive references

Do not use ibid., loc. cit. etc.

If there two successive references are to the same publication, simply repeat the label:

21. Wittkower, 1997, pp. 8-10.
22. Wittkower, 1997, p. 11.

Referring to a footnote

If you are referring to a footnote, set out with both page number where the footnote appears and the footnote number:

23. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462 note 67.

Catalogue entries

In referring to catalogue entries, give both page number and catalogue number:

24. Wittkower, 1997, p. 462, cat. 33.


Your Bibliography (at the end of the essay or thesis) must include all the sources to which you refer in your text.

Fields of a book in a bibliography

Wittkower, 1961: Rudolf Wittkower, Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque, London: Phaidon, 1961.

Wittkower, 1961:
This is the label field , of the kind employed in exhibition catalogues. This is set in bold for easy recognisability. Note that a colon is the separator. Because exhibition catalogues often have huge numbers of references, in a great diversity of items (essays, catalogue entries, etc.) all these items use short citations (labels) followed by page numbers and so forth, with the full bibliographic details in a general bibliography at the end of the book. The label can be added to an EndNote reference by filling out the field called 'Label'. This is done manually. In principle, you can label the item any way you like, though normally it is the author, or authors (to a maximum of 3), followed by a comma and the date. You can use labels for archival sites.

Rudolf Wittkower,
This is the author field , with first name first. Note that the separators between all fields except label and author, and place and publisher, is a comma.

Bernini. The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque,
This is the title field , and is in italics. If the title is in two parts, as here ('Bernini' is the first part 'The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque' is the second) the separator should be either a full stop, as here, or a colon.

London: Phaidon,
These are the place and publisher fields . Note that the separator between place and publisher is a colon. As a rule, include the publisher, but sometimes this is not practicable. Try to be as consistent as possible.

This is the year field . It is normally the last item in a bibliography reference, and so ends with a full stop.

Note that page numbers are not used for full book references in a bibliography, only for book sections or journal articles. (They are always used in footnotes, however.)

Additional fields of a journal article in a bibliography

Turner, 1979: James Turner, 'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead', Art Bulletin, 21, no. 1, 1979, pp. 68-77.

'The Structure of Henry Hoare's Stourhead',
This is the article title field . It is always enclosed in inverted commas, not italics. Do not confuse this with the journal title.

Art Bulletin,
This is the journal title field , and is always in italics.

This is the journal volume field . Do not prefix it with 'vol.' or anything else. Use Arabic numerals, not Roman.

no. 1,
This is the issue field . It may be 'January' or something similar as well. Normally it is sufficient to omit this and simply use the journal volume field, although for newspapers and other periodicals not normally consulted in bound sets it should be included.

pp. 68-77.
This is the pages field . Use 'p.' for a single page and 'pp.' for a range. Do not use 'pg.' or, in this style, omit the 'p.' Note these conventions for abbreviating number ranges:

  • pp. 68-77.
  • pp. 168-77. i.e. repeat only the last two numbers, but
  • pp. 107-9. i.e. do not have a loose '0' for numbers under 10.

Ordering the bibliography

  • The bibliography is organised alphabetically. If, on the advice of your supervisor, your topic requires a bibliography organised by subject, please discuss the most appropriate methods of citation with your supervisor.
  • The bibliography includes every item in the footnotes. Archival sources, interviews etc., should be included within the alphabetical listing of the bibliography.
  • N.B. The bibliography need not be annotated for theses.

The Great War: Art on the Front Line

July 28, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of the start of World War I (1914–1918), a global conflict that resulted in more than 17-million deaths and another 20-million wounded. Its widespread deployment of mechanized and chemical warfare represented an application of science and technology that brought an end to what many had seen as the promise of industrialization to promote a peaceful and prosperous future. The art world reacted strongly to this unprecedented carnage. Many artists were involved in the fighting, their experiences profoundly affecting their worldview and their art. Whether they fought in the war or not, artists in Europe and America sought new styles and new philosophies to express their views of a society now forever changed. The Great War includes paintings, sculpture and works on paper by Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Childe Hassam, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Käthe Kollwitz and others.

Copyright © 2014 Toledo Museum of Art

Fun & Games: The Pursuit of Leisure

For centuries, humankind has enjoyed a wealth of leisure diversions. Drawing on works from local and Toledo Museum of Art collections, Fun & Games shows a variety of those activities—games, sports, racing, theater, dancing and gossip—depicted by artists over the years. The exhibition includes paintings, ceramics and works of art on paper by such artists as Honore Daumier, James A. M. Whistler, George Wesley Bellows, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Lucas Cranach, Winslow Homer, Albrecht Dürer, Marc Chagall and Rembrandt van Rijn. 

Copyright © 2014 Toledo Museum of Art

People Get Ready: 50 Years of Civil Rights

After a year of social tumult and congressional debate, the U.S. Civil Rights Act was signed into law on July 2, 1964. In honor of those who fought for the rights of all citizens to be treated fairly and equally, this exhibition features works of art examining slavery, segregation and the civil rights movement in the United States. It includes more than 35 works from the TMA collection by Elizabeth Catlett, David Levinthal, Gordon Parks, Aminah Robinson, W. Eugene Smith, Ernest C. Withers and others who have illuminated and challenged prejudice and bigotry through their prints, photographs and books.

Copyright © 2014 Toledo Museum of Art

In Fine Feather: Birds, Art & Science

Coinciding with the Biggest Week in American Birding, In Fine Feather highlights the intersection of natural science and art in the pursuit of describing and identifying birds, from a medieval treatise on falconry to John James Audubon’s Birds of America to the modern field guide. The exhibition features works by noted bird artists and illustrators including Audubon, Alexander Wilson, John Gould and Roger Tory Peterson.

Copyright © 2014 Toledo Museum of Art

Paper Roses: Garden-Inspired Works on Paper

Paper Roses looks at human interaction with nature, landscape, and garden design. Assembled entirely from the Museum’s own collection, the show presents more than 100 prints, drawings, books, and photographs by some of the most acclaimed European and American artists from the 17th to the 20th centuries. Paper Roses complements the major international exhibition The Art of the Louvre’s Tuileries Garden.

Copyright © 2014 Toledo Museum of Art

Highs & Lows: Printing Processes

This exhibition explores various printmaking techniques used from the Renaissance to the present, and includes a video presentation illustrating printmakers at work. The title refers to how ink is transferred from the block plate to paper or other materials: the “highs” are relief prints such as woodcut, where ink transfers from the uncut raised surfaces; the “lows” are intaglio processes such as engraving, where ink transfers from the lower plate. Art students from the University of Toledo curated this show with works from the Toledo Museum of Art collection.

Copyright © 2013 Toledo Museum of Art

Ebb & Flow: Cross Cultural Prints

Ebb & Flowexplores the “new in old things” through the exchange of artistic ideas between Japan and the West from the opening of Japan to foreign trade in the mid-1800s to the present. Along with a selection of prints from the Toledo Museum of Art’s seminal 1936 exhibition of shin hanga (new prints), the exhibition features artworks by 20th-century Japanese and Western artists influenced by the shin hanga movement and its more Western-related counterpart, the sōsaku hanga (creative prints) movement.

Shin hanga revived the classic woodblock print collaborative workshop model of the Edo period (1615–1868), while sōsaku hanga artists designed, carved, and printed their own woodblocks. Prints by contemporary artists, both Japanese and Western, who themselves have been influenced by those important traditions, round out the show.

This catalog is presented in conjunction with the exhibition (October 11, 2013 – January 5, 2014).

Copyright © 2013 The Toledo Museum of Art

George Bellows and New York 1900–1930

George Bellows and New York 1900–1930 is devoted to works by artists inspired by New York City in the early 20th century. Art history students from the University of Michigan used the Museum’s The Bridge, Blackwell’s Island (1909) by George Bellows as a point of departure to curate the show. The exhibition features that important painting along with works on paper by Bellows (1882–1925) and other American Realist artists who portrayed the changing social and architectural landscape of the city in that era.

This catalogue is presented in conjunction with the exhibition (February 14–April 21, 2013). All works of art are from the Museum’s collection.

Copyright © 2013 The Toledo Museum of Art

94th Toledo Area Artists Exhibition

Artist Joe Fig and TMA Mellon Fellow Kate Nesin will be jurors for the 94th annual Toledo Area Artists Exhibition (February 4th–April 13, 2013), which celebrates the best of Northwest Ohio’s vibrant artistic community.

Prints and Authors in the Time of Manet

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) came of age during a time of prolific change in Paris and in French society in general. While earlier artists produced works of biblical and mythological subjects full of history and allegory, artists like Manet began to paint more freely and to draw inspiration from the life around them. Prints, photographs, and illustrated books produced during Manet’s lifetime are included.

This catalogue is presented in conjunction with the Toledo Museum of Art exhibition Prints and Authors in the Time of Manet (September 12, 2012–January 13, 2013). All works of art are from the Museum’s collection.

Copyright © 2013 The Toledo Museum of Art

Small Worlds

Small Worlds brings together intricate, charming, disquieting, and thoughtful artwork on the smallest of scales, although some of the resulting works aren’t small at all. Each of the engaging works in this free exhibition creates an intimate space or environment, and shows scenes which are familiar but perhaps slightly askew. Five contemporary artists present more than 40 “small worlds” rendered via relief paintings, sculptures, drawings, and photos.

This online catalogue is laid out like a map that enables exploration of the artists and the works in the exhibition through videos, text, images, and other contextual content.

Storytelling in Miniature

Perhaps to conceal from prying eyes, to demonstrate engraving prowess, to conserve scarce paper and utilize every bit of expensive copper, or to prove a point (even if only to themselves), artists have created very small prints from the technique’s beginnings in the 1400s to the present. Some of the earliest were produced almost by chance.

This catalogue is presented in conjunction with the Toledo Museum of Art exhibition Storytelling in Miniature (October 7, 2011–March 4, 2012). All works of art are from the Museum’s collection.

Copyright © 2011 The Toledo Museum of Art

93rd Toledo Area Artists Exhibition

TMA Director Brian Kennedy and Associate Director Amy Gilman were jurors for the 93rd annual Toledo Area Artists Exhibition (August 26–September 25, 2011), which features 67 works from artists from Northwest Ohio and surrounding areas.

The Dramatic Image: Baroque Prints of the 17th Century

In the late 1500s and early 1600s, a new style of art developed, characterized by dynamic compositions, direct emotion, high drama, and appeal to the common man. The Baroque is most often associated with painting, sculpture, and architecture, but the art of printmaking thrived during the period, with contributions from some of the greatest printmakers of all time, such as Jacques Callot and Rembrandt.

This, the first online catalogue produced by the Toledo Museum of Art, is presented in conjunction with the exhibition The Dramatic Image: Baroque Prints of the 17th Century (February 25–July 31, 2011). All works of art are from the Museum’s collection.

Copyright © 2011 The Toledo Museum of Art

Digitized TMA publications are available online at archive.org

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